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Chinese Reacts To Mark Zuckerburg’s New Global Statement

扎克伯格发表脸书宣言 重启全球化

卡马尔·阿哈迈德(Kamal Ahmed)

BBC商业事务编辑

马克•扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)对与全球化背道而驰的潮流表达了深深的担忧。

在接受BBC采访时,这位脸书(Facebook)的创始人说,假新闻、两极分化的观点和网络信息”过滤泡沫”破坏着人们的”共识”。

他称被全球化进程抛在身后的人们,激烈表达 “撤出”这一”紧密联系的世界”的要求。

扎克伯格呼吁大家采取行动,不能”垂头丧气、坐视不管”,而应当致力于建立”社会基础设施”。

“当我开始创办脸书(Facebook)时,沟通世界是毫无争议的使命,”他说。

“那一假定似乎是默认的,世界各地的联系与日俱增,也是大势所趋。”

“如今,这个愿景正变得更有争议。”

失去希望

他对BBC表示:”全世界都有人对全球化和当今世界的剧烈变化感到失落,由此导致了一些蓄意退出全球联系的运动。”

扎克伯格于此次受访期间出版了一篇长达5500字的倡议书,讨论脸书(Facebook)和全球经济的未来。

信中扎克伯格引用了亚伯拉罕·林肯 “协同一致”的行动主张,谈到”精神需求”、公民参与,并表示”许多人失去了对未来的希望”。

“过去几十年,也许更长时间内,人们对这个想法笃信不疑,认为一个紧密联系的世界会更好。”他说。

“我认为这是事实,从长远来看这必将成为现实,并且我们可以构建很多社会基础设施来确保全球社区使每个人从中受益。”

“但在某些方面,全球化为人们带来的挑战并未得到思考,因此便产生了我们所看到的反应。”

“如果人们想问,人类的发展方向将会是走向融合还是反之呢?我为,答案显然是肯定的。”

“但我们必须确保全球化社会让所有人受益。而这将不会自动发生。”

“所有不同类型的机构,不管是政府或非营利组织、公司,都需要为构建社会性基础设施做出贡献,从而为每个人——不仅仅是一部分人——创造机会。”

“如果你担忧世界的发展方向,我希望你不是仅仅垂头丧气、坐视不管,而理应感到建设长期的基础设施的迫切需求,”扎克伯格说。

全球性的挑战

记者向他提问,新任总统是否同意他提出的”人才集聚”和”沟通世界”会带来更大进步的主张。

众所周知,扎克伯格没有出席特朗普总统主持召开的技术领袖圆桌会议。

“我不会对此进行直接回应,”扎克伯格小心地回答。”你可以与他交流,看他怎么说你便会有所了解。”

“我想说,很多人会透过一、两个事件来审视(全球化),但我认为这将是一个更广泛的趋势。”

“在欧洲、亚洲和美国的近期选举前,我就在持续谈论这个话题。”

“当今世界最大的机遇都将来自于人才集聚——无论是传播繁荣或自由,还是加速科学发展,抑或增进和平与相互理解。”

扎克伯格说:”我们今天面临的很多挑战即全球性挑战——如应对气候变化、结束恐怖主义、消灭全球性疫情,或当一个国家的内战导致难民危机在各大洲间传播——这些挑战在本质上是全球性的,因此需要历史时期内前所未有的基础设施(应对)。”

政治抱负

你愿意与新任总统会面吗?记者问道。

“我希望这不是我们的讨论焦点。对此我没有太多评论。而且这一定程度上偏离了我们正试图做的重点。”

有猜测称,扎克伯格可能考虑其政治生涯,甚至认为他将在2020年竞选美国总统。扎克伯格本人对此断然否认。

记者指出,他此次宣言的政治基调将无助于抑制对他长远目的的种种猜测。

那么,他想象过自己从政吗?

“这不是我现在或计划将要做的,”他说。”我真正关心的是沟通世界。”

脸书(Facebook)已被指并未采取足够的措施来解决”虚假新闻”的问题——即媒体失实报道,如教皇方济各(PopeFrancis)支持特朗普当选——曾在脸书的新闻订阅上大肆传播。

在德国,脸书(Facebook)也曾身陷争议的漩涡。起因为德国绿党著名政客被指为一名在德寻求庇护且涉嫌性侵及杀害一名德国学生的阿富汗青年辩护,并在脸书(Facebook)上被曝光。

然而该绿党议员居纳斯特(Renate Künast)却从未发表此言论,此事已被证实为一个右翼极端分子组织的操作。

居纳斯特女士表示这让人难以接受:”扎克伯格获利数十亿美元,炫耀他所有的慈善捐款,于此同时允许脸书(Facebook)成为极端分子的操纵工具”。

扎克伯格表示他理解解决”虚假新闻”问题的重要性。

见解自由

“信息的准确性是至关重要的,”扎克伯格在周四发表的5500字倡议书上说,”我们知道在脸书(Facebook)上有错误信息甚至彻头彻尾的欺骗性内容。”

“与打击垃圾消息一样,我们已经取得了打击骗局的进展,但还有更多的要做。”

“在骗局、反讽和个人意见之间并不总是界限清晰,因此我们一直在谨慎地采取行动。”

但扎克伯格补充道:”在一个自由社会中,重要的是人们有权分享他们的意见,即使别人认为他们错了。”

“我们的方法将更少关注于禁止错误信息,而是更多地关注额外的观点和信息,包括事实查证以审议其准确性。”

他说”两极分化和轰动效应”也削弱了”共识”。

同时,他承认社交媒体——通常表现为简短、往往咄咄逼人的消息——是问题的一部分。

“在某些方面,(它)简化重要和复杂的话题,且可能会推动我们过度简化这些意见,”扎克伯格说。

“我认为,致力于扩大积极影响并缓解消极因素是我们的责任。只有如此我们才可以创建一个分享共识的社会。”

“众多研究表明最好的话语产生于人与人沟通联接成一个整体时,而非仅仅观点。”

“如果我们分享共同价值观或是兴趣爱好,将比我们只是对彼此人性共同点毫无了解的情况下互不相让地争辩,更容易对彼此意见不合之处展开富有成效的讨论。”

树立榜样

也许会有人质疑其合法性,毕竟没有人曾投票给马克·扎克伯格,或拷问他是否有权来描述,并试图执行一个关乎世界的愿景。

再者,不平等几乎是目前任何政治、商业体制中反对声音的缘由于和全球化的所谓失败因素¬,该如何在当今时代探讨那些富有争议的纳税、隐私或者巨额利润的问题呢?

“我明白在很多领域我们都需要改进,因此感谢任何批评和反馈,并希望我们做得更好。”扎克伯格说,他将捐出他在脸书(Facebook)99%的股份至他和他的妻子普莉希拉·陈(PriscillaChan)名下的慈善基金会,这笔捐款价值360亿英镑(约450亿美金)。

“做一个好的企业公民是非常重要的”,他说。”我们在世界各地的许多国家经营”。

“我们需要共同提供帮助来建立这些社区,这就是我致力于在个人慈善事业中的努力——希望为未来的企业家们树立应该如何回馈社会和世界的榜样”。

“我非常关心这一切,并已经在酝酿之中”。

 

 

Mark Zuckerberg wants Facebook to have more power in ourlives, and we should resist

BY JAN DAWSON  FEB24, 2017, 1:00PM EST

From Record

Lastweek, Mark Zuckerberg posted on Facebook a combination of a personal andcompany manifesto.He also spoke to a number of reporters regarding it. The manifesto is long, andit covers a ton of ground, some of it about the state of the world, but much ofit, at least indirectly and directly, about Facebook and its role in such aworld. The manifesto is notable for its concession that Facebook has enormouspower and has, in some ways, contributed to some big problems plaguing theworld. But, more worryingly, it seems to think the solution is more Facebook.

I talked toMark Zuckerberg about his manifesto on the future of Facebook (and the rest ofus)

Therehas been rising concern about Facebook’s power over many facets of our livesfor years now, and the concern is especially strong when it comes to news andmedia consumption, where Facebook is becoming an ever more important channel.Because Facebook’s algorithms determine which things users could be shown,Facebook bears a primary responsibility for making decisions about the mediaworld its users live in.

Facebook’sincentives are to show people the things they’re most likely to enjoy, engagewith and share with their friends. But the assumption is that this meansshowing them things that fit with their existing views, rather than challengingthem. It means it often ends up creating so-called “filter bubbles” in whichpeople are only ever exposed to media that confirms their existing views, andonly rarely to contradictory views.

Zuckerberg’smanifesto acknowledges all of this, but proposes solutions that are focused onFacebook itself, rather than on weaning people off their reliance on Facebook.That’s understandable — his job is to get people to use Facebook more ratherthan less but, of course, this approach merely reinforces Facebook’s power andpotentially even increases it as it takes a more active role in showing peoplea range of content. This is a theme that flows throughout the post, talkingabout all the things Facebook can do to take an even bigger and stronger rolein the lives of its users.

Nowhereis this more striking than when he starts talking about participation in thedemocratic process:

Thesecond is establishing a new process for citizens worldwide to participate incollective decision-making. Our world is more connected than ever, and we faceglobal problems that span national boundaries. As the largest global community,Facebook can explore examples of how community governance might work at scale.

That,to me, sounds like Zuckerberg envisions a world in which Facebook itselfbecomes the medium through which communities (i.e., cities, states, countries)would govern themselves. Given existing concerns about Facebook’s power toshape media consumption, the idea that it would take a direct role ingovernance (rather than merely allowing people to vote or connect with theirelected representatives as it has done in the past) should be terrifying.

It’sarguable that even Facebook’s “Get Out the Vote” efforts have potential todistort the democratic process, given that usage skews younger than the overallpopulation. But at least it doesn’t give Facebook a direct role in thedemocratic process itself. If I were a local government, I’d be extremely waryof allowing Facebook a deeper role in any of these processes — I think it’stime for both individuals and organizations to push back against Facebook’s enormouspower rather than embracing an expansion of it.

Butthis concern should go beyond just the democratic process and institutions — weshould all be thinking about how much power we want Facebook to have over ourlives. A line that was removed from the manifesto between when a draft was sentout to reporters and when the final version was published on Facebook hints atsome other dangers. That line concerned the use of AI to detect terrorism:

Thelong term promise of AI is that in addition to identifying risks more quicklyand accurately than would have already happened, it may also identify risksthat nobody would have flagged at all — including terrorists planning attacksusing private channels, people bullying someone too afraid to report itthemselves, and other issues both local and global. It will take many years todevelop these systems.

On theface of it, this seems great — Facebook would be helping to identify those whowould hurt others while they’re still in the planning stages. But it refers toterrorists using private channels, which implies Facebook looking into thecontents of private messages shared between users on Facebook’s variousplatforms. This is yet another area where Facebook’s power is alreadyconsiderable — not only does it control much of our media consumption, but italso hosts and carries much of our communication via four huge platforms:Facebook itself, Messenger, WhatsApp and Instagram.

Facebook’sinstincts here are understandable, but also worrying. It finally recognizes itspower and the ways in which that power has caused problems in the world, butits instinct is to wield that power even more, rather than back off. Given thatFacebook seems unlikely to police itself, it’s up to its users and otherorganizations to start to exert pressure for it to do so.

 

 

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